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Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1804- 1864

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[1642] [1644] [1645] [1646] [1647] [1648] [1649] <-Scarlet Letter period
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[1858] [1859] [1860] [1861] [1862] [1863] [1864]<-Hawthorne dies
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[1900] [1903] [1904] [1926] [1934]

March 16..Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter published by Ticknor, Reed and Fields
May...Lenox, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne moves family to Tanglewood cottage
U.S.: Emerson publishes Representative Men
June...New York: Harper's Magazine begins publication
July 9....Washington, D.C.: Zachary Taylor dies and Millard Fillmore becomes President, signs the Compromise of 1850, supported by Pierce but not by abolitionists
July 19...Fire Island, N.Y.: Margaret Fuller dies in shipwreck; Thoreau, sent by Emerson, can't find remains
Aug. 5...Stockbridge, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne meets Herman Melville at a picnic
England: Charles Dickens publishes David Copperfield
England: Elizabeth Barrett Browning publishes Sonnets from the Portuguese
Aug. 28...Weimar, Germany: Wagner's Lohengrin performed (Wagner still in hiding in Switzerland after German revolution fails)
Sept. 9...U.S.: California admitted as 31st state
U.S.: Aeta Life Insurance Company issues its first policies
Buffalo, N.Y.: American Express formed
San Francisco: Levi Strauss & Co. founded
Washington, D.C.: Emmanuel Leutze finishes painting Washington Crosses the Delaware, (destroyed in Germany in World War II, but a second version is at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)
England: Francis Dalton invents the teletype
Brooklyn, N.Y.: 16 English sparrows imported to control insects
March 11...Milan: Verdi performs Rigoletto
April...Lenox, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes The House of the Seven Gables
May 20...Lenox, Mass.: Rose Hawthorne born to Nathaniel and Sophia
Lenox, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne writes his last tale, "Feathertop"
Pittsfield, Mass.: Herman Melville dedicates Moby-Dick to Nathaniel Hawthorne
November..Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes A Wonder-Book for Boys and Girls
Aug. 12...U.S.: Isaac Singer patents sewing machine; later buys out Howe
Aug. 22...England: first America's Cup races
Sept. 18...New York: New York Times founded
San Jose, Ca.: San Jose Mercury founded
November....West Newton, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne moves family to home of Horace Mann
December..Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes The Snow-Image and Other Twice-Told Tales
U.S.: Treaty of Fort Laramie opens West to settlers
England: Great International Exposition, first world's fair, opens in Crystal Palace
Galveston, Texas: Gail Borden invents evaporated milk
Boston: first YMCA opens in U.S.
June..Concord, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne moves family into The Wayside, bought from Bronson Alcott
June 5...U.S.: Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom's Cabin
July..Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes The Blithedale Romance, based on Brook Farm experience
July...New York: Nathaniel Hawthorne's sister Louisa dies in steamboat explosion
September..Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes The Life of Franklin Pierce, Democratic candidate campaign biography
November....Washington, D.C.: Nathaniel Hawthorne's friend, Franklin Pierce, elected 14th president of U.S.
U.S.: Elisha Otis invents first safe elevator
Jan. 11..West Newton, Mass.: Mrs. Elizabeth Peabody, Sophia's mother, dies
September..Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes Tanglewood Tales
March..Washington, D.C.: Pres. Franklin Pierce appoints Nathaniel Hawthorne Consul in Liverpool, England
July....Concord, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne moves family to Liverpool, England; he assumes office August 1
U.S.: Stephen Foster writes song "My Old Kentucky Home"
George Cayley flies glider
Japan: Perry opens trade with U.S.
England: Dickens publishes Bleak House
July 6...U.S.: Republican party founded
August 9....Concord, Mass.: Henry David Thoreau publishes Walden
Oct. 28....Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne's Mosses from an Old Manse 2nd ed. published by Ticknor, Reed and Fields
Washington, D.C.: President Pierce gets into trouble with Ostend Manifesto (it threatened Spain that U.S. would seize Cuba)
England: Dickens publishes Hard Times
U.S.: Walt Whitman publishes Leaves of Grass
U.S.: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow publishes The Song of Hiawatha
England: Alexander Parkes invents celluloid
Germany: Bunsen invents burner
November..Liverpool, England: Herman Melville visits Nathaniel Hawthorne
Europe: Crimean War ends between Russia and British-French forces
May...Liverpool, England: again, briefly, Melville meets Nathaniel Hawthorne
Fall..Liverpool: Ada Shepard becomes governess, tutor to Hawthorne children
October....England: Nathaniel Hawthorne leaves position as American Consul in Liverpool
U.S.: Slavery protected by U.S. Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision
Henry Bessemer and William Kelly independently invent Bessemer furnace
U.S.: Depression started by economic panic
U.S.: Mark Twain becomes apprentice pilot on Mississippi River
January...France; Rome, Italy: Nathaniel Hawthorne and family travel and fill notebooks
May-October....Florence, Italy: Nathaniel Hawthorne and family live happily in villa
Donati's Comet is seen
Mar. 24...Concord, Mass.: Elizabeth (Beth) Alcott dies at home, buried in Sleepy Hollow
July...Concord, Mass.: Alcotts move into Orchard House
U.S.: First transatlantic cable laid
U.S.: Lincoln-Douglas debates
Russia: Czar Alexander II frees serfs
U.S.: Oliver Wendell Holmes publishes The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table
June...Italy: Nathaniel Hawthorne moves family to England to finish writing The Marble Faun
Titusville, Pa.: first oil well flows
Feb. 3...Concord, Mass.: Thoreau's father dies and he takes over the family pencil-making business
Harper's Ferry, Va. [Now Harpers Ferry, W. Va.]: John Brown leads abolitionist raid on arsenal
Oct. 30...Concord, Mass.: Thoreau speaks in favor of John Brown
England: George Eliot publishes Adam Bede
Peking, China: Summer Palace burns
Boston: Women's Rights Convention
February...London: Nathaniel Hawthorne's Transformation published
Concord, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne moves family back to The Wayside
March...Boston, Mass.: Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Marble Faun (entitled Transformation in England) published
April 3..Concord, Mass.: Franklin Sanborn arrested briefly for having supplied arms to John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry, refusing to testify before the U.S. Senate, and fleeing to Canada; U.S. agents are chased out of town by angry Concord citizens
May 23..Concord, Mass.: Anna Alcott (type for Meg in Little Women) marries John Pratt
U.S.: Dr. Dio Lewis introduces a fad for calisthenics and gymnastics
U.S.: Pony Express begins, St. Louis to California
Feb. 9...Richmond: Confederate States of America formed
April 12....Charleston, S.C.: Civil War begins
April 19...Concord, Mass.: troops called out for another war
June....New Haven, Conn.: Yale awards first Ph.D.
July 10...Cambridge, Mass.: Fanny Appleton Longfellow dies in fire
England: George Eliot publishes Silas Marner
England: Dickens publishes Great Expectations
Jan. 24...New York: Edith Wharton born
May 6....Concord, Mass.: (255 Main St.) Thoreau dies of tuberculosis; Hawthorne attends funeral May 9
April....Washington, D.C.: Nathaniel Hawthorne visits Bridge and Lincoln, in July publishes "Chiefly about War Matters," an essay on Civil War
Paris: Victor Hugo publishes Les Miserables
December..Washington, D.C.: Louisa May Alcott serves as nurse
Jan. 1....U.S.: Emancipation Proclamation takes effect
Jan. 23...Concord, Mass.: Louisa May Alcott returns from war nursing, ill wth typhoid fever
July 1...Gettysburg, Pa.: first day of great battle
July 4....Concord, N.H.: Nathaniel Hawthorne attends celebration in which Franklin Pierce declares Emancipation Proclamation unconstitutional;
September...Boston: Nathaniel Hawthorne dedicates Our Old Home (collection of Atlantic Monthly essays on English experiences) to his friend Pierce, in spite of advice from James Fields that it would hurt sales
Oct. 26...International Red Cross founded
November....U.S.: President Lincoln proclaims first Thanksgiving holiday
Nov. 19...Gettysburg, Pa.: Lincoln addresses commemoration
Cambridgeport, Mass.: Emily Dickinson lives here while undergoing eye treatments
Savannah, Georgia: Gen. Sherman captures city
May 18-19.... Plymouth, N.H.: Nathaniel Hawthorne dies in his sleep on a trip with Franklin Pierce
Boston: James Russell Lowell and Charles Eliot Norton become co-editors of The North American Review
April 9....Appomattox, Va.: Gen. Robert E. Lee surrenders to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant
April 15...Washington, D.C.: Pres. Abraham Lincoln dies after being shot
England: Lewis Carroll publishes Alice in Wonderland
Amesbury, Massachusetts: John Greenleaf Whittier publishes "Snow-bound"
October...Hawthorne family moves to Germany so Julian can study there, having been asked to leave Harvard
October 1: Louisa May Alcott publishes Little Women
Paris: Jules Verne publishes Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
November..New York: Julian Hawthorne marries May Amelung
Feb. 26....England: Sophia Peabody Hawthorne dies
September...Rose Hawthorne marries George Lathrop
Boston: James T. Fields publishes Yesterdays with Authors
England: Una Hawthorne, with help of Robert Browning, publishes unfinished manuscripts as Septimius Felton; or, the Elixir of Life
Concord, Mass.: Emerson's house burns while he is in Europe and is reconstructed by his friends before his return
March 26....San Francisco: Robert Frost born
U.S.: Chester Greenwood invents modern ear muffs
Mar. 10....Boston: Alexander Graham Bell first demonstrates telephone
June 25...Battle of Little Big Horn (Custer's Last Stand)
U.S.: Mark Twain publishes Tom Sawyer
U.S.: George Parsons Lathrop publishes A Study of Hawthorne
Sept. 10...England: Una Hawthorne dies
June 12...New York: William Cullen Bryant dies
July 15...Concord, Mass.: Alcott opens Concord School of Philosophy
New York: Henry James publishes study, Hawthorne
U.S.: Electric light bulb perfected
March 24....Cambridge, Mass.: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow dies
April 27..Concord, Mass.: Ralph Waldo Emerson dies
Jan. 1...Hawthorne's surviving, elder sister, Miss Elizabeth Maria Hawthorne, dies
May 1...Cambridge, Mass.: G. P. Lathrop edits Houghton Mifflin's Riverside Edition of Hawthorne's complete works
N.Y.: George Eastman invents first transparent photographic film
April 27....Concord, Mass.: Ralph Waldo Emerson dies
Julian Hawthorne publishes biography, Nathaniel Hawthorne and His Wife
U.S.: Mark Twain publishes Huckleberry Finn
February..U.S.: Henry James satirizes Elizabeth Palmer Peabody in The Bostonians
May 15....Amherst, Mass.: Emily Dickinson dies
Mary Mann dies
March 4....Boston, Mass.: Bronson Alcott dies
March 6....Roxbury, Mass.: Louisa May Alcott dies, not knowing of father's death
England: John Dunlop invents pneumatic tire
Germany: Daimler invents gasoline automobile
Sept. 28...New York: Herman Melville dies after finishing Billy Budd
Jan. 3..Boston, Mass.: Elizabeth Palmer Peabody dies at Gordon hotel
U.S.: Stephen Crane publishes Red Badge of Courage
Dec. 17...Kitty Hawk, N.C.: Wright brothers first fly in heavier-than-air craft
July 4...Concord, Salem, Mass.: Centennial of Nathaniel Hawthorne's birth is celebrated
July 9....Hawthorne, N.Y.: Rose Hawthorne dies
San Francisco: Julian Hawthorne dies

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