Albertus Magnus(c. 1200-1280; born in Swabia, now Germany and died in Prussia, now Germany) is mentioned by Hawthorne in "The Birth-mark" as one of the philosophers of the Middle Ages who "perhaps imagined themselves, to have acquired from the investigation of nature a power above nature, and from physics a sway over the spiritual world."

In "The Birth-mark" Georgiana peruses books in Aylmer's scientific library and comes across works by philosophers of the Middle Ages such as Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, Paracelsus, and Friar Bacon, creator of the Brazen Head.
(courtesy of University of Saint Andrews, Scotland) close window